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 Effects on the Animal System in Health, and Their Utility in the
 Treatment of Tetanus and Other Convulsive Diseases, _
 Dr_ O'Shaughnessy observed that marijuana (Hemp) was an excellent
 antispasmodic and described its use in reducing the convulsive
 Symptoms of tetanus_ rabies and ether deadly disorders. 129/ In
 ii 1860, the Ohio Medical Society published the first American
 report on the subject° The Society repo_ced marijuanas usually
 provided in the form of an e_ctract, reduced spasms and
 convulsions and aided in the treatment of psychic disorders. I/i_/
 In 1893-94, the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report was
 published. This eight-volume study provided detailed information
 on the importance of marijuana in European and American medicine
 and the variety of medical applications it had. I/I/
 These historical reports clearly demonstrate
 marijuana was used and accepted by the medical community of that
 time. As Harvard Professor Dr° Norman Zinberg testified, the
 reports showed that _reputable _ . . considerate and humane
 physicians _ . . saw [marijuana's] use as safe and effi-
 caciouso w13---_/ The historical use and acceptance of marijuana is
 quite relevant in determining marijuana_s ccurrent acceptability
 .... i as medicine. In this regards Dr. John Morgan testified that
 drugs may reach an accepted medical use not only through an
 12_./ Affidavit of Alice O'Leary_ _ Ii, 12. _ Marijuana:
 Medical Papers, ppo 3-30 (T_ Mikuriya_ edo 1973).
 !3Q/ Affidavit of Alice OSLeary_ _ 15_ Se_ri_
 Medical PaDers_ at I17_40o
 21!i/ Affidavit of Dr. Tad Mikuriya, _ 6°
 132/ Cross-examination of Dr. Norman Zinberg_ Tr. 11-244®

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