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 Drug Problem (1973), at pgo 197. It also leads to kidney dysfunction,
 Korsakoff's psychosis, and hypemhyroid. Jaffe, supra, at pg. 292.
 Because alcohol supplies calories to the body, thus depressing the
 appetite, without supplying needed vitamins and amino acids, alcohol
 abuse engenders nutritional deficiencies not common to other types of
 drug abuse. These nutritional deficiencies in turn make it more
 difficult for the alcoholic to withstand the stresses of the withdrawal
 syndrome° {d., at pg. 114.
 Tobacco ranks with a[cohoJ in widespread use among Americans; it
 is also the single major cause of heart and brood vessel disorders, and
 cancer, which are the two most common causes of death in America,
 occurring for more than half the deaths of Americans each year.
 AIcohol, supra, at pgo 197. Nicotine, the primary active substance in
 tobacco is a central nervous system stimulant similar to the
 amphetamines in its genera[ effects. The harmful characteristics of
 nicotine are well known:
 Nicotine is one of the most toxic drugs known and
 is usually thought of as a poison .... Cigarette
 tobacco contains between 1.5 and 3 percent
 nicotine, with each cigarette containing 20 to 30
 milligrams of the drug. As little as four
 milligrams has produced serious symptoms in
 nonhabituated individua3s, a_though the fatal dose
 for an adult is about 60 milligrams. The smoke of
 an ordinary cigar may contain between 15 to 40
 milligrams of nicotine. Heavy doses produce
 nausea, vomiting, d{arrhea, headaches, dist_arbed
 vision and hearing, confusion, weakness, sharp drip
 in blood pressure, convulsions, and untimely death
 from paralysis of the respiratory muscles. About
 90 percent of the nicotine inhaEed tobacco .smoke is
 absorbed compared to sucked into the mouth.
 Fort, supra, at pgs° 154-55.
 _n addition to heart and blood vessel disorders and cancer of the
 rungs, mouth, larynx, and esophagus, tobacco smoking may also cause
 chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and loss of vision (tobacco amblyopia).
 Id., at pg. 155o It is clear that tolerance develops to the use of
 nicotine, ld., and there is strong evidence that the use of tobacco
 constitute a withdrawaS syndrome characteristic of true addiction.

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