norml23 - Page 30

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 tolerance, dependence, and an abstinence syndrome
 strikingly similar to that seen with alcohol and
 the barbiturates .... All of the drugs produce
 symptoms of intoxication which are similar to one
 another and to the barbiturates. Excessive doses
 cause varying degrees of drowsiness, confusion, and
 motor incoordination with slurred and thick speech,
 double vision, staggering and falling. Nemory is
 impaired, intellectual functions blunted, and
 emotional control reduced° Rage reactions may
 occur. Chloral hydrate, a hyposedative introduced
 into clinical medicine in 1869, displays certain
 characteristic symptoms not observed with other
 drugs in this cJass, such as scaling of the eyelids
 and scalp, and muscle and joint pains which mimic
 arthritis .... With larger doses respiration and
 blood pressure are depressed° The patient may
 enter a coma which can be fatal. Such deaths have
 been reported following overdosage with meprobamate
 .... ethcNorvynol and ethimateo
 A barbiturateqike dependence pattern develops in
 those individuals who abuse these agents° During
 periods of chronic intoxication, tolerance and
 physical dependence deveiopo Tolerance is usuaJly
 correlated with an accelerated hepatic breakdown of
 the drug. Ethinamate, however, does not appear to
 stimulate liver enzyme activity, but nevertheless
 induces tolerance... Abrupt reduction or
 discontinuance of dosage precipitates a withdrawaf
 syndrome similar to that of barbiturism or
 alcoholism .... Ninor symptoms of anxiety,
 tremor, insomnia, nausea and vomiting predominate.
 Convulsions and deEirium have been reported with
 alJ these dependence, which results in withdrawal,
 delirium, with prominent paranoia, and occasional
 tremor .... As in the case of barbiturates, the
 ordeal of abstinence may be life-threatening, and
 deaths have occurred during withdrawa_ from
 meprobamate ....

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