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 indicated that studies had failed to demonstrate any casual
 connection between use of marijuana and loss of motivation
 (marijuana "amotivationa[ syndrome"), brain damage, birth
 defects, or "chromosome breakdown." Marihuana and Heamth, Second
 Annual Report to Congress from the Secretary of Health, Education
 and Welfare, 111-132 (1972); Marihuana and Heafth, Third Annuai
 Report: to Congress from the Secretary of Health, Education and
 Welfare, 129-153 (1973); Narihuana and Health, Fourth annual
 Report to Congress from the Secretary of Health, Education and
 Wemfare, 93-121 (1974); t4arihuana and Health, Fifth Annual Report
 to Congress from the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare,
 78_112 (197..5); Marihuana and Health, Sixth Annual Report to
 Congress from the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare
 (1976); Narihuana and Health, Seventh Annua_ Report to Congress
 from the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare, 15-35
 (!977); Marihuana and Health, Education and Welfare, 7-26 (1980).
 The National Governor's Conference conductec{ an extensive
 examination of the marijuana issue in 1977, and published its
 findings in Marijuana: A Study of State Policies and Penalties
 (Nov. 1977). This report discussed the medical and health issues
 in detail, ld. at pgs. 41-63, concluding that "compared to most
 pharmaceutical, marijuana is quite low in biological toxicity."
 [d. at pg. 42.
 The President's Commission on Mental Health Task Panel
 issued its report on Psychoactive Drug Use/Misuse on February 15,
 1978. The report reaffirmed the findings and recommendations on
 the National Commission, and the other reports, calling for the
 decriminalization of marijuana because of its low potential for
 abuse, rod. at pgs. 2114-18.
 Dr. Lester Grinspoon's encyclopedic work, Marihuana
 Reconsidered (Second Edition 1977), is one of the most
 comprehensive surveys and analysis on the use and effect of
 marijuana available. Drawing upon hundreds of studies, as we[[
 as his own research, Grinspoon documents the conclusions reached
 by earlier researchers" moderate use of marijuana causes no
 physical or psychological harm to users, [d. at pgs. 370-71;
 marijuana is not addicting, [d., at 223, has never been shown to
 have caused death of any user, [do at 227; does not produce
 psychosis, [do at 253, et seq.; does not lead to use of other
 drugs such as heroin, [d. at pgs. 235, et seq.; does: not lead to




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