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 s was
 Duke, Steven Bo and Gross, Albert C._ Ame2_i_LQD_L_t War, (1993), at
 34 (footnotes omitted) _
 Because alcohol supplies calories to the body_ thus depressing the
 appetite, without supplying needed vitamins and amino acids, alcohol
 abuse engenders nutritional deficiencies not common to other types of
 drug abuse° These nutritional deficiencies in turn make it more
 difficult for the alcoholic to withstand the stresses of the withdrawal
 syndromes Jaffe, u_aF at !14o
 In addition to the physiological and psychiatric effects of
 alcohol use, there are criminogenic effects. In 1988 "It]here were
 more than 3 million arrests for 'alcohoi-related _ offenseso" Duke and
 Gross, _/nerica!sL______i_ _/Ipr_a at 37. Alcohol has serious
 effects on behavior and safety. "Singel episodes of drinking,
 persistent alcohol abuses and alcohol dependence can result in a
 variety of adverse social consequesnces that can affect a host of
 people, ranging from an individual drinker to society as a whole."
 U°S. Department of Health and Human Services, _ Special _eD__r_t t_
 the UpS. C_Q_ngress oQ___Qbg_l_an_ea_ (Sept. 1993) at 233. Moreover_
 1'[e]stimates suggest that alcoholics are nearly 5 times more likely
 than others to die in motor vehicle crashes_ i6 times more likely to
 die in falls, and I0 times more likely to become fire or burn victims.
 In addition, research indicates that alcohol involvement
 contributes to and/or is associated with domestic and criminal

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