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 e_essant_o (CSA Schedule IV) 0 A number of central nervous
 system depressants are listed in Schedule IV of the CSA, including
 chloral betaine, chloral hydrate; ethchlorvynol_ ethinamate;
 meprobamate, paraldehyde, and petrichloral. The National Commission
 reported in a U " / , sl/_r_%_ at 93-93_ that these sub-
 have been shown to be capable of producing
 barbiturate-like intoxication and inducing
 tolerance, dependence; and an abstinence syndrome
 strikingly similar to that seen with alcohol and
 the barbiturates .... All of the drugs produce
 symptoms of intoxication which are similar to one
 another and to the barbiturates. Excessive doses
 cause varying degrees of drowsiness, confusion, and
 motor incoordination with slurred and thick speech,
 double vision, staggering and falling. Memory is
 impaired, intellectual functions blunted, and
 emotional control reduced_ Rage reactions may
 occur. Chloral hydrate, a hyposedative introduced
 into clinical medicine in 1869_ displays certain
 characteristic symptoms not observed with other
 drugs in this class; such as scaling of the eyelids
 and scalp, and muscle and joint pains which mimic
 arthritis. _ . With larger doses respiration and
 blood pressure are depressed. The patient may
 enter a coma which can be fatal. Such deaths have
 been reported following overdosage with meprobamate
 .... ethchlorvyno! and ethimate.
 A barbiturate-like dependence pattern develops in
 those individuals who abuse these agents. During
 periods of chronic intoxication, tolerance and
 physical dependence develop. Tolerance is usually
 correlated with an accelerated hepatic breakdown of
 the drug. Ethinamate, however_ does not appear to
 stimulate liver enzyme activity_ but nevertheless
 induces tolerance o . Abrupt reduction or
 discontinuance of dosage precipltates a withdrawal
 syndrome similar to that of barbiturism or
 alcoholism .... Minor symptoms of anxiety,
 tremor; insomnias nausea and vomiting predominate.
 Convulsions and delirium have been reported with
 all these dependence, which results in withdrawals
 delirium, with prominent paranoia, and occasional
 tremor .... As in the case of barbiturates, the
 ordeal of abstinence may be life-threatening, and

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