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 The object of this Essay is to assert one
 very simple principle, as entitled to govern
 absolutely the dealings of society with the
 individual in the way of compulsion and
 control, whether the means used be physical
 force in the form of legal penalties, or the
 moral coercion of public opinion. That
 principle is that the sole end for which
 mankind are warranted, individually or
 collectively, or in interfering with the
 liberty of action of any of their number, is
 self-protection. That the p_DlhL_pj/_p_Qse _ fo_
 which m_pwer can be ri_htly_gxercised Qveer any
 member of a_givilized 90mm__D/!i!AL_ a__ainst his
 will is to prevent harm to oth,_rs. His own
 good, either physical or moral, is not a
 sufficient warrant° He cannot :_ightfully be
 compelled to do or forebear because it will
 be better for him to do so, because it will
 make him happier, because, in the opinions of
 others, to do so would be wise, or even
 right° These are good reasons for
 remonstrating with him, or reasoning with
 him, or persuading him, or entreating him,
 but not for compelling him, or visiting him
 with any evil, in case he does otherwise. To
 justify that_ the conduct from which it is
 desired to deter him must he calculated to
 produce evil to someone else. The only party
 of the conduct of anyone, but which he is
 amenable to society, is that which concerns
 others° In the part which merely concerns
 himself, his independence is, of right,
 absolute. Over himself_ over his own body
 and mind, the individual is sovereign.
 No society in which these liberties are not,
 on the whole, respected is free, whatever may
 be its form of government; and none is
 completely free in which they do not exist
 absolute and unqualified. The only freedom
 which deserves the names is that of pursuing
 our own good in our own way, so long as we do
 not attempt to deprive others of theirs, or
 impede their efforts to obtain it. Each is

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