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 have attempted it, as gentlemen may see, by
 turning to the last clause of the Fourth
 1 Annals 439 (emphasis added).
 Madison's reasoning suggests the dual import of the
 Amendment as originally proposed° First, the canon of statutory
 construction, the expression of one is the exclusion of all
 others, i.eo, the expression of certain rights is the exclusion
 of rights not expressed, is not to be appiied in construing the
 Constitution, the result being a reaffirmation of the common
 belief that the federal government was to be a government of
 limited powers. Second, important human rights are retained by
 the people which remained unexpressed in the Constitution or its
 first eight amendments. The crucial langmage of Madison's
 proposed amendment is the language, "other rights retained by the
 people," language which was absent from Virginia's proposed
 Fourteenth Resolution°
 Thus, as submitted by Madison, Resolution Four, Section i0,
 is a rule of construction limiting the encroachment of
 governmental power, as was Virginia's Fourteenth Resolution, as
 well as an affirmative assertion of the remaining natural rights
 of man which are not expressly guaranteed by the Constitution or
 by the first eight amendments.
 On July 28, the select committee, four of whose membership

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