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 1 Annals 435.
 The language of Madison's proposal 4(10) is similar to
 Virginia's proposed Amendment 17_ which by inference served as
 Madison's model -- with one essential difference° Both
 amendments express a rule of construction, i.eo, the expression
 of certain enumerated rights shall not be construed to enlarge
 the powers delegated by the Constitution to the federal
 government° Madison's amendment presented to the First Congress
 contained a second meaningr absent_ or at least unexpressed, in
 Virginia proposed Amendment number 17. To quote for purposes of
 emphasis from Madison's proposed 4(10):
 The exceptions shall not be construed
 as to diminish the just importance of other
 rights retained b_y_the peqple
 (emphasis added}.
 The following is Madison's explanation of the purpose of
 Resolution 4, Section i0:
 It has been objected also against the Bill of
 Rights, that, by enumerating particular
 exceptions to the grant of powers, it would
 disparage those ri ht_s which were noL_laced
 in hat enumeration; and it might follow, by
 implications that those rights which were not
 singled out, were intended to be assigned
 into the hands of the general governments and
 were consequently insecure° This is one of
 the most plausible arguments I h_ve ever
 heard urged against the admission of a bill
 of rights into this system; but as I
 conceives that it may be guarded against, I

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