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 Pennsylvania Ratifying Convention in 1788, gave the strongest
 expression of this thesis:
 .°. in a government consisting of enumerated
 powers_ such as is proposed for the United
 States, a bill of rights would :not only be
 unnecessary, but, in my humble judgement,
 highly imprudent. In all societies_ there
 are many powers and rights which cannot be
 particularly enumerated. A bill of rights
 annexed to a constitution is an enumeration
 of the powers reserved. If we attempt an
 enumeration, everything that is not
 enumerated is presumed to be given. The
 consequence is that an imperfec_ enumeration
 would throw all implied power into the scale
 of the government, and the rights of the
 people would be rendered incomplete° On the
 other hand, an imperfect enumeration of the
 powers of government reserves all implied
 power to the people; and by that means the
 constitution becomes incomplete. But of the
 twos it is much safer to run the risk on the
 side of the constitution; for an omission in
 the enumeration of the power of government is
 neither so dangerous nor important as the
 omission in the enumeration of the rights of
 the people.
 To every suggestion concerning a bill of
 rights, the citizens of the United States may
 always say, We reserve the right to do what
 we please.
 Debates_ 436-37 (2d edo 1836) o
 Hamilton_ in the Federalist Noo 84, likewise voiced this
 I go further_ and affirms that bill of
 rights, in the sense and to the extent they

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